In this paper, we focus on category-level 6D pose and size estimation from monocular RGB-D image. Previous methods suffer from inefficient category-level pose feature extraction which leads to low accuracy and inference speed. To tackle this problem, we propose a fast shape-based network (FS-Net) with efficient category-level feature extraction for 6D pose estimation. First, we design an orientation aware autoencoder with 3D graph convolution for latent feature extraction. The learned latent feature is insensitive to point shift and object size thanks to the shift and scale-invariance properties of the 3D graph convolution. Then, to efficiently decode category-level rotation information from the latent feature, we propose a novel decoupled rotation mechanism that employs two decoders to complementarily access the rotation information. Meanwhile, we estimate translation and size by two residuals, which are the difference between the mean of object points and ground truth translation, and the difference between the mean size of the category and ground truth size, respectively. Finally, to increase the generalization ability of FS-Net, we propose an online box-cage based 3D deformation mechanism to augment the training data. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance in both category- and instance-level 6D object pose estimation. Especially in category-level pose estimation, without extra synthetic data, our method outperforms existing methods by 6.3% on the NOCS-REAL dataset.