Classifying Complexity with the ZX-Calculus: Jones Polynomials and Potts Partition Functions

Alex Townsend-Teague, Konstantinos Meichanetzidis

The ZX-calculus is a graphical language which allows for reasoning about suitably represented tensor networks - namely ZX-diagrams - in terms of rewrite rules. Here, we focus on problems which amount to exactly computing a scalar encoded as a closed tensor network. In general, such problems are #P-hard. However, there are families of such problems which are known to be in P when the dimension is below a certain value. By expressing problem instances from these families as ZX-diagrams, we see that the easy instances belong to the stabilizer fragment of the ZX-calculus. Building on previous work on efficient simplification of qubit stabilizer diagrams, we present simplifying rewrites for the case of qutrits, which are of independent interest in the field of quantum circuit optimisation. Finally, we look at the specific examples of evaluating the Jones polynomial and of counting graph-colourings. Our exposition further champions the ZX-calculus as a suitable and unifying language for studying the complexity of a broad range of classical and quantum problems.

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