Partial Differential Equations is All You Need for Generating Neural Architectures -- A Theory for Physical Artificial Intelligence Systems

Ping Guo, Kaizhu Huang, Zenglin Xu

In this work, we generalize the reaction-diffusion equation in statistical physics, Schr\"odinger equation in quantum mechanics, Helmholtz equation in paraxial optics into the neural partial differential equations (NPDE), which can be considered as the fundamental equations in the field of artificial intelligence research. We take finite difference method to discretize NPDE for finding numerical solution, and the basic building blocks of deep neural network architecture, including multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network and recurrent neural networks, are generated. The learning strategies, such as Adaptive moment estimation, L-BFGS, pseudoinverse learning algorithms and partial differential equation constrained optimization, are also presented. We believe it is of significance that presented clear physical image of interpretable deep neural networks, which makes it be possible for applying to analog computing device design, and pave the road to physical artificial intelligence.

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