Siamese Network Features for Endoscopy Image and Video Localization

Mohammad Reza Mohebbian, Seyed Shahim Vedaei, Khan A. Wahid, Paul Babyn

Conventional Endoscopy (CE) and Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) are known tools for diagnosing gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders. Localizing frames provide valuable information about the anomaly location and also can help clinicians determine a more appropriate treatment plan. There are many automated algorithms to detect the anomaly. However, very few of the existing works address the issue of localization. In this study, we present a combination of meta-learning and deep learning for localizing both endoscopy images and video. A dataset is collected from 10 different anatomical positions of human GI tract. In the meta-learning section, the system was trained using 78 CE and 27 WCE annotated frames with a modified Siamese Neural Network (SNN) to predict the location of one single image/frame. Then, a postprocessing section using bidirectional long short-term memory is proposed for localizing a sequence of frames. Here, we have employed feature vector, distance and predicted location obtained from a trained SNN. The postprocessing section is trained and tested on 1,028 and 365 seconds of CE and WCE videos using hold-out validation (50%), and achieved F1-score of 86.3% and 83.0%, respectively. In addition, we performed subjective evaluation using nine gastroenterologists. The results show that the computer-aided methods can outperform gastroenterologists assessment of localization. The proposed method is compared with various approaches, such as support vector machine with hand-crafted features, convolutional neural network and the transfer learning-based methods, and showed better results. Therefore, it can be used in frame localization, which can help in video summarization and anomaly detection.

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