InsertGNN: Can Graph Neural Networks Outperform Humans in TOEFL Sentence Insertion Problem?

Fang Wu, Xiang Bai

Sentence insertion is a delicate but fundamental NLP problem. Current approaches in sentence ordering, text coherence, and question answering (QA) are neither suitable nor good at solving it. In this paper, We propose InsertGNN, a simple yet effective model that represents the problem as a graph and adopts the graph Neural Network (GNN) to learn the connection between sentences. It is also supervised by both the local and global information that the local interactions of neighboring sentences can be considered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded attempt to apply a supervised graph-structured model in sentence insertion. We evaluate our method in our newly collected TOEFL dataset and further verify its effectiveness on the larger arXivdataset using cross-domain learning. The experiments show that InsertGNN outperforms the unsupervised text coherence method, the topological sentence ordering approach, and the QA architecture. Specifically, It achieves an accuracy of 70%, rivaling the average human test scores.

Knowledge Graph

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