Joint User Association and Power Allocation in Heterogeneous Ultra Dense Network via Semi-Supervised Representation Learning

Xiangyu Zhang, Zhengming Zhang, Luxi Yang

Heterogeneous Ultra-Dense Network (HUDN) is one of the vital networking architectures due to its ability to enable higher connectivity density and ultra-high data rates. Rational user association and power control schedule in HUDN can reduce wireless interference. This paper proposes a novel idea for resolving the joint user association and power control problem: the optimal user association and Base Station transmit power can be represented by channel information. Then, we solve this problem by formulating an optimal representation function. We model the HUDNs as a heterogeneous graph and train a Graph Neural Network (GNN) to approach this representation function by using semi-supervised learning, in which the loss function is composed of the unsupervised part that helps the GNN approach the optimal representation function and the supervised part that utilizes the previous experience to reduce useless exploration. We separate the learning process into two parts, the generalization-representation learning (GRL) part and the specialization-representation learning (SRL) part, which train the GNN for learning representation for generalized scenario quasi-static user distribution scenario, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed GRL-based solution has higher computational efficiency than the traditional optimization algorithm, and the performance of SRL outperforms the GRL.

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