Fast Bayesian Uncertainty Estimation and Reduction of Batch Normalized Single Image Super-Resolution Network

Aupendu Kar, Prabir Kumar Biswas

Convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved unprecedented success in image super-resolution tasks in recent years. However, the network's performance depends on the distribution of the training sets and degrades on out-of-distribution samples. This paper adopts a Bayesian approach for estimating uncertainty associated with output and applies it in a deep image super-resolution model to address the concern mentioned above. We use the uncertainty estimation technique using the batch-normalization layer, where stochasticity of the batch mean and variance generate Monte-Carlo (MC) samples. The MC samples, which are nothing but different super-resolved images using different stochastic parameters, reconstruct the image, and provide a confidence or uncertainty map of the reconstruction. We propose a faster approach for MC sample generation, and it allows the variable image size during testing. Therefore, it will be useful for image reconstruction domain. Our experimental findings show that this uncertainty map strongly relates to the quality of reconstruction generated by the deep CNN model and explains its limitation. Furthermore, this paper proposes an approach to reduce the model's uncertainty for an input image, and it helps to defend the adversarial attacks on the image super-resolution model. The proposed uncertainty reduction technique also improves the performance of the model for out-of-distribution test images. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to propose an adversarial defense mechanism in any image reconstruction domain.

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