Connectivity and Collision Constrained Opportunistic Routing for Emergency Communication using UAV

Sharvari N P, Dibakar Das, Jyotsna Bapat, Debabrata Das

Emergency communication is extremely important to aid rescue and search operation in the aftermath of any disaster. In such scenario, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) networks may be used to complement the damaged cellular networks over large areas. However, in such UAV networks, routing is a challenge, owing to high UAV mobility, intermittent link quality between UAVs, dynamic three dimensional (3D) UAV topology and resource constraints. Though several UAV routing approaches have been proposed, none of them so far have addressed inter UAV coverage, collision and routing in an integrated manner. In this paper, we consider a scenario where network of UAVs, operating at different heights from ground, with inter UAV coverage and collision constraints, are sent on a mission to collect disaster surveillance data and route it to Terrestrial Base Station via multi-hop UAV path. Analytical expressions for coverage probability (Pcov) and collision probability (Pcoll) are derived and minimum (Rmin) and maximum (Rmax) distance between UAVs are empirically calculated. We then propose a novel Multi-hop Opportunistic 3D Routing (MO3DR) algorithm with inter UAV coverage and collision constraints such that at every hop expected progress of data packet is maximized. The numerical results obtained from closed form mathematical modelling are validated through extensive simulation and their trade-off with variation in network parameters such as path loss component, trajectory divergence etc. are demonstrated. Finally, we obtain empirical optimality condition for inter UAV distance for the given application requirement.

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