Tossing Quantum Coins and Dice

V. I. Yukalov

The procedure of tossing quantum coins and dice is described. This case is an important example of a quantum procedure because it presents a typical framework employed in quantum information processing and quantum computing. The emphasis is on the clarification of the difference between quantum and classical conditional probabilities. These probabilities are designed for characterizing different systems, either quantum or classical, and they, generally, cannot be reduced to each other. Thus the L\"{u}ders probability cannot be treated as a generalization of the classical conditional probability. The analogies between quantum theory of measurements and quantum decision theory are elucidated.

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