Hereditary rigidity, separation and density In memory of Professor I.G. Rosenberg

Lucien Haddad, Masahiro Miyakawa, Maurice Pouzet, Hisayuki Tatsumi

We continue the investigation of systems of hereditarily rigid relations started in Couceiro, Haddad, Pouzet and Sch\"olzel [1]. We observe that on a set $V$ with $m$ elements, there is a hereditarily rigid set $\mathcal R$ made of $n$ tournaments if and only if $m(m-1)\leq 2^n$. We ask if the same inequality holds when the tournaments are replaced by linear orders. This problem has an equivalent formulation in terms of separation of linear orders. Let $h_{\rm Lin}(m)$ be the least cardinal $n$ such that there is a family $\mathcal R$ of $n$ linear orders on an $m$-element set $V$ such that any two distinct ordered pairs of distinct elements of $V$ are separated by some member of $\mathcal R$, then $ \lceil \log_2 (m(m-1))\rceil\leq h_{\rm Lin}(m)$ with equality if $m\leq 7$. We ask whether the equality holds for every $m$. We prove that $h_{\rm Lin}(m+1)\leq h_{\rm Lin}(m)+1$. If $V$ is infinite, we show that $h_{\rm Lin}(m)= \aleph_0$ for $m\leq 2^{\aleph_0}$. More generally, we prove that the two equalities $h_{\rm Lin}(m)= log_2 (m)= d({\rm Lin}(V))$ hold, where $\log_2 (m)$ is the least cardinal $\mu$ such that $m\leq 2^\mu$, and $d({\rm Lin}(V))$ is the topological density of the set ${\rm Lin}(V)$ of linear orders on $V$ (viewed as a subset of the power set $\mathcal{P}(V\times V)$ equipped with the product topology). These equalities follow from the {\it Generalized Continuum Hypothesis}, but we do not know whether they hold without any set theoretical hypothesis.

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