CUR Low Rank Approximation at Deterministic Sublinear Cost

Qi Luan, Victor Y. Pan, John Svadlenka

A matrix algorithm runs at {\em sublinear cost} if it uses much fewer memory cells and arithmetic operations than the input matrix has entries. Such algorithms are indispensable for Big Data Mining and Analysis. Quite typically in that area the input matrices are so immense that realistically one can only access a small fraction of all their entries but can access and process at sublinear cost their Low Rank Approximation {\em (LRA)}. Can, however, we compute LRA at sublinear cost? Adversary argument shows that the output of any algorithm running at sublinear cost is extremely far from LRA of the worst case input matrices and even of the matrices of small families of our Appendix, but we prove that some deterministic sublinear cost algorithms output reasonably close LRA in a memory efficient form of CUR LRA if an input matrix admits LRA and is Symmetric Positive Semidefinite or is very close to a low rank matrix. The latter result is technically simple but provides some (very limited but long overdue) support for the well-known empirical efficiency of sublinear cost LRA by means of Cross-Approximation. We demonstrate the power of application of such LRA by turning the Fast Multipole celebrated Method into Superfast Multipole Method. The design and analysis of our algorithms rely on extensive prior study of the link of LRA of a matrix to maximization of its volume.

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