Extreme-scale cosmological simulations have been widely used by today's researchers and scientists on leadership supercomputers. A new generation of error-bounded lossy compressors has been used in workflows to reduce storage requirements and minimize the impact of throughput limitations while saving large snapshots of high-fidelity data for post-hoc analysis. In this paper, we propose to adaptively provide compression configurations to compute partitions of cosmological simulations with newly designed post-analysis aware rate-quality modeling. The contribution is fourfold: (1) We propose a novel adaptive approach to select feasible error bounds for different partitions, showing the possibility and efficiency of adaptively configuring lossy compression for each partition individually. (2) We build models to estimate the overall loss of post-analysis result due to lossy compression and to estimate compression ratio, based on the property of each partition. (3) We develop an efficient optimization guideline to determine the best-fit configuration of error bounds combination in order to maximize the compression ratio under acceptable post-analysis quality loss. (4) Our approach introduces negligible overheads for feature extraction and error-bound optimization for each partition, enabling post-analysis-aware in situ lossy compression for cosmological simulations. Experiments show that our proposed models are highly accurate and reliable. Our fine-grained adaptive configuration approach improves the compression ratio of up to 73% on the tested datasets with the same post-analysis distortion with only 1% performance overhead.