Nowadays, the amount of heterogeneous biomedical data is increasing more and more thanks to novel sensing techniques and high-throughput technologies. In reference to biomedical image analysis, the advances in image acquisition modalities and high-throughput imaging experiments are creating new challenges. This huge information ensemble could overwhelm the analytic capabilities needed by physicians in their daily decision-making tasks as well as by biologists investigating complex biochemical systems. In particular, quantitative imaging methods convey scientifically and clinically relevant information in prediction, prognosis or treatment response assessment, by also considering radiomics approaches. Therefore, the computational analysis of medical and biological images plays a key role in radiology and laboratory applications. In this regard, frameworks based on advanced Machine Learning and Computational Intelligence can significantly improve traditional Image Processing and Pattern Recognition approaches. However, conventional Artificial Intelligence techniques must be tailored to address the unique challenges concerning biomedical imaging data. This thesis aims at proposing novel and advanced computer-assisted methods for biomedical image analysis, also as an instrument in the development of Clinical Decision Support Systems, by always keeping in mind the clinical feasibility of the developed solutions. In conclusion, the ultimate goal of these research studies is to gain clinically and biologically useful insights that can guide differential diagnosis and therapies, leading towards biomedical data integration for personalized medicine. As a matter of fact, the proposed computer-assisted bioimage analysis methods can be beneficial for the definition of imaging biomarkers, as well as for quantitative medicine and biology.