Pointwise visual field estimation from optical coherence tomography in glaucoma: a structure-function analysis using deep learning

Ruben Hemelings, Bart Elen, João Barbosa Breda, Erwin Bellon, Matthew B Blaschko, Patrick De Boever, Ingeborg Stalmans

Background/Aims: Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) is the gold standard to monitor visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma management, but is prone to intra-subject variability. We developed and validated a deep learning (DL) regression model that estimates pointwise and overall VF loss from unsegmented optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Methods: Eight DL regression models were trained with various retinal imaging modalities: circumpapillary OCT at 3.5mm, 4.1mm, 4.7mm diameter, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) en face images to estimate mean deviation (MD) and 52 threshold values. This retrospective study used data from patients who underwent a complete glaucoma examination, including a reliable Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 24-2 SITA Standard VF exam and a SPECTRALIS OCT scan using the Glaucoma Module Premium Edition. Results: A total of 1378 matched OCT-VF pairs of 496 patients (863 eyes) were included for training and evaluation of the DL models. Average sample MD was -7.53dB (from -33.8dB to +2.0dB). For 52 VF threshold values estimation, the circumpapillary OCT scan with the largest radius (4.7mm) achieved the best performance among all individual models (Pearson r=0.77, 95% CI=[0.72-0.82]). For MD, prediction averaging of OCT-trained models (3.5mm, 4.1mm, 4.7mm) resulted in a Pearson r of 0.78 [0.73-0.83] on the validation set and comparable performance on the test set (Pearson r=0.79 [0.75-0.82]). Conclusion: DL on unsegmented OCT scans accurately predicts pointwise and mean deviation of 24-2 VF in glaucoma patients. Automated VF from unsegmented OCT could be a solution for patients unable to produce reliable perimetry results.

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