We introduce DoubleField, a novel representation combining the merits of both surface field and radiance field for high-fidelity human rendering. Within DoubleField, the surface field and radiance field are associated together by a shared feature embedding and a surface-guided sampling strategy. In this way, DoubleField has a continuous but disentangled learning space for geometry and appearance modeling, which supports fast training, inference, and finetuning. To achieve high-fidelity free-viewpoint rendering, DoubleField is further augmented to leverage ultra-high-resolution inputs, where a view-to-view transformer and a transfer learning scheme are introduced for more efficient learning and finetuning from sparse-view inputs at original resolutions. The efficacy of DoubleField is validated by the quantitative evaluations on several datasets and the qualitative results in a real-world sparse multi-view system, showing its superior capability for photo-realistic free-viewpoint human rendering. For code and demo video, please refer to our project page: http://www.liuyebin.com/dbfield/dbfield.html.