Accurate and robust Shapley Values for explaining predictions and focusing on local important variables

Salim I. Amoukou, Nicolas J-B. Brunel, Tangi Salaün

Although Shapley Values (SV) are widely used in explainable AI, they can be poorly understood and estimated, which implies that their analysis may lead to spurious inferences and explanations. As a starting point, we remind an invariance principle for SV and derive the correct approach for computing the SV of categorical variables that are particularly sensitive to the encoding used. In the case of tree-based models, we introduce two estimators of Shapley Values that exploit efficiently the tree structure and are more accurate than state-of-the-art methods. For interpreting additive explanations, we recommend to filter the non-influential variables and to compute the Shapley Values only for groups of influential variables. For this purpose, we use the concept of "Same Decision Probability" (SDP) that evaluates the robustness of a prediction when some variables are missing. This prior selection procedure produces sparse additive explanations easier to visualize and analyse. Simulations and comparisons are performed with state-of-the-art algorithm, and show the practical gain of our approach.

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