MoCL: Contrastive Learning on Molecular Graphs with Multi-level Domain Knowledge

Mengying Sun, Jing Xing, Huijun Wang, Bin Chen, Jiayu Zhou

Recent years have seen a rapid growth of utilizing graph neural networks (GNNs) in the biomedical domain for tackling drug-related problems. However, like any other deep architectures, GNNs are data hungry. While requiring labels in real world is often expensive, pretraining GNNs in an unsupervised manner has been actively explored. Among them, graph contrastive learning, by maximizing the mutual information between paired graph augmentations, has been shown to be effective on various downstream tasks. However, the current graph contrastive learning framework has two limitations. First, the augmentations are designed for general graphs and thus may not be suitable or powerful enough for certain domains. Second, the contrastive scheme only learns representations that are invariant to local perturbations and thus does not consider the global structure of the dataset, which may also be useful for downstream tasks. Therefore, in this paper, we study graph contrastive learning in the context of biomedical domain, where molecular graphs are present. We propose a novel framework called MoCL, which utilizes domain knowledge at both local- and global-level to assist representation learning. The local-level domain knowledge guides the augmentation process such that variation is introduced without changing graph semantics. The global-level knowledge encodes the similarity information between graphs in the entire dataset and helps to learn representations with richer semantics. The entire model is learned through a double contrast objective. We evaluate MoCL on various molecular datasets under both linear and semi-supervised settings and results show that MoCL achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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