We study the identifiability of the interaction kernels in mean-field equations for intreacting particle systems. The key is to identify function spaces on which a probabilistic loss functional has a unique minimizer. We prove that identifiability holds on any subspace of two reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS), whose reproducing kernels are intrinsic to the system and are data-adaptive. Furthermore, identifiability holds on two ambient L2 spaces if and only if the integral operators associated with the reproducing kernels are strictly positive. Thus, the inverse problem is ill-posed in general. We also discuss the implications of identifiability in computational practice.