GoTube: Scalable Stochastic Verification of Continuous-Depth Models

Sophie Gruenbacher, Mathias Lechner, Ramin Hasani, Daniela Rus, Thomas A. Henzinger, Scott Smolka, Radu Grosu

We introduce a new stochastic verification algorithm that formally quantifies the behavioral robustness of any time-continuous process formulated as a continuous-depth model. The algorithm solves a set of global optimization (Go) problems over a given time horizon to construct a tight enclosure (Tube) of the set of all process executions starting from a ball of initial states. We call our algorithm GoTube. Through its construction, GoTube ensures that the bounding tube is conservative up to a desired probability. GoTube is implemented in JAX and optimized to scale to complex continuous-depth models. Compared to advanced reachability analysis tools for time-continuous neural networks, GoTube provably does not accumulate over-approximation errors between time steps and avoids the infamous wrapping effect inherent in symbolic techniques. We show that GoTube substantially outperforms state-of-the-art verification tools in terms of the size of the initial ball, speed, time-horizon, task completion, and scalability, on a large set of experiments. GoTube is stable and sets the state-of-the-art for its ability to scale up to time horizons well beyond what has been possible before.

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