On the Kernel and Related Problems in Interval Digraphs

Mathew C. Francis, Pavol Hell, Dalu Jacob

Given a digraph $G$, a set $X\subseteq V(G)$ is said to be absorbing set (resp. dominating set) if every vertex in the graph is either in $X$ or is an in-neighbour (resp. out-neighbour) of a vertex in $X$. A set $S\subseteq V(G)$ is said to be an independent set if no two vertices in $S$ are adjacent in $G$. A kernel (resp. solution) of $G$ is an independent and absorbing (resp. dominating) set in $G$. We explore the algorithmic complexity of these problems in the well known class of interval digraphs. A digraph $G$ is an interval digraph if a pair of intervals $(S_u,T_u)$ can be assigned to each vertex $u$ of $G$ such that $(u,v)\in E(G)$ if and only if $S_u\cap T_v\neq\emptyset$. Many different subclasses of interval digraphs have been defined and studied in the literature by restricting the kinds of pairs of intervals that can be assigned to the vertices. We observe that several of these classes, like interval catch digraphs, interval nest digraphs, adjusted interval digraphs and chronological interval digraphs, are subclasses of the more general class of reflexive interval digraphs -- which arise when we require that the two intervals assigned to a vertex have to intersect. We show that all the problems mentioned above are efficiently solvable, in most of the cases even linear-time solvable, in the class of reflexive interval digraphs, but are APX-hard on even the very restricted class of interval digraphs called point-point digraphs, where the two intervals assigned to each vertex are required to be degenerate, i.e. they consist of a single point each. The results we obtain improve and generalize several existing algorithms and structural results for subclasses of reflexive interval digraphs.

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