The recent extra-large scale massive multiple-input multiple-output (XL-MIMO) systems are seen as a promising technology for providing very high data rates in increased user-density scenarios. Spatial non-stationarities and visibility regions (VRs) appear across the XL-MIMO array since its large dimension is of the same order as the distances to the user-equipments (UEs). Due to the increased density of UEs in typical applications of XL-MIMO systems and the scarcity of pilots, the design of random access (RA) protocols and scheduling algorithms become challenging. In this paper, we propose a joint RA and scheduling protocol, namely non-overlapping VR XL- MIMO (NOVR-XL) RA protocol, which takes advantage of the different VRs of the UEs for improving RA performance, besides seeking UEs with non-overlapping VRs to be scheduled in the same payload data pilot resource. Our results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves significant gains in terms of sum rate compared with traditional RA schemes, as well as reducing access latency and improving connectivity performance as a whole.