GPUTreeShap: Massively Parallel Exact Calculation of SHAP Scores for Tree Ensembles

Rory Mitchell, Eibe Frank, Geoffrey Holmes

SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation) values provide a game theoretic interpretation of the predictions of machine learning models based on Shapley values. While exact calculation of SHAP values is computationally intractable in general, a recursive polynomial-time algorithm called TreeShap is available for decision tree models. However, despite its polynomial time complexity, TreeShap can become a significant bottleneck in practical machine learning pipelines when applied to large decision tree ensembles. We present GPUTreeShap, a modified TreeShap algorithm suitable for massively parallel computation on graphics processing units. Our approach first preprocesses each decision tree to isolate variable sized sub-problems from the original recursive algorithm, then solves a bin packing problem, and finally maps sub-problems to single-instruction, multiple-thread (SIMT) tasks for parallel execution with specialised hardware instructions. With a single NVIDIA Tesla V100-32 GPU, we achieve speedups of up to 19x for SHAP values, and speedups of up to 340x for SHAP interaction values, over a state-of-the-art multi-core CPU implementation executed on two 20-core Xeon E5-2698 v4 2.2 GHz CPUs. We also experiment with multi-GPU computing using eight V100 GPUs, demonstrating throughput of 1.2M rows per second -- equivalent CPU-based performance is estimated to require 6850 CPU cores.

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