Sample Complexity of Learning Quantum Circuits

Haoyuan Cai, Qi Ye, Dong-Ling Deng

Quantum computers hold unprecedented potentials for machine learning applications. Here, we prove that physical quantum circuits are PAC (probably approximately correct) learnable on a quantum computer via empirical risk minimization: to learn a quantum circuit with at most $n^c$ gates and each gate acting on a constant number of qubits, the sample complexity is bounded by $\tilde{O}(n^{c+1})$. In particular, we explicitly construct a family of variational quantum circuits with $O(n^{c+1})$ elementary gates arranged in a fixed pattern, which can represent all physical quantum circuits consisting of at most $n^c$ elementary gates. Our results provide a valuable guide for quantum machine learning in both theory and experiment.

Knowledge Graph

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