ECG Heartbeat Classification Using Multimodal Fusion

Zeeshan Ahmad, Anika Tabassum, Ling Guan, Naimul Khan

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an authoritative source to diagnose and counter critical cardiovascular syndromes such as arrhythmia and myocardial infarction (MI). Current machine learning techniques either depend on manually extracted features or large and complex deep learning networks which merely utilize the 1D ECG signal directly. Since intelligent multimodal fusion can perform at the stateof-the-art level with an efficient deep network, therefore, in this paper, we propose two computationally efficient multimodal fusion frameworks for ECG heart beat classification called Multimodal Image Fusion (MIF) and Multimodal Feature Fusion (MFF). At the input of these frameworks, we convert the raw ECG data into three different images using Gramian Angular Field (GAF), Recurrence Plot (RP) and Markov Transition Field (MTF). In MIF, we first perform image fusion by combining three imaging modalities to create a single image modality which serves as input to the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). In MFF, we extracted features from penultimate layer of CNNs and fused them to get unique and interdependent information necessary for better performance of classifier. These informational features are finally used to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier for ECG heart-beat classification. We demonstrate the superiority of the proposed fusion models by performing experiments on PhysioNets MIT-BIH dataset for five distinct conditions of arrhythmias which are consistent with the AAMI EC57 protocols and on PTB diagnostics dataset for Myocardial Infarction (MI) classification. We achieved classification accuracy of 99.7% and 99.2% on arrhythmia and MI classification, respectively.

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