Improving COVID-19 Forecasting using eXogenous Variables

Mohammadhossein Toutiaee, Xiaochuan Li, Yogesh Chaudhari, Shophine Sivaraja, Aishwarya Venkataraj, Indrajeet Javeri, Yuan Ke, Ismailcem Arpinar, Nicole Lazar, John Miller

In this work, we study the pandemic course in the United States by considering national and state levels data. We propose and compare multiple time-series prediction techniques which incorporate auxiliary variables. One type of approach is based on spatio-temporal graph neural networks which forecast the pandemic course by utilizing a hybrid deep learning architecture and human mobility data. Nodes in this graph represent the state-level deaths due to COVID-19, edges represent the human mobility trend and temporal edges correspond to node attributes across time. The second approach is based on a statistical technique for COVID-19 mortality prediction in the United States that uses the SARIMA model and eXogenous variables. We evaluate these techniques on both state and national levels COVID-19 data in the United States and claim that the SARIMA and MCP models generated forecast values by the eXogenous variables can enrich the underlying model to capture complexity in respectively national and state levels data. We demonstrate significant enhancement in the forecasting accuracy for a COVID-19 dataset, with a maximum improvement in forecasting accuracy by 64.58% and 59.18% (on average) over the GCN-LSTM model in the national level data, and 58.79% and 52.40% (on average) over the GCN-LSTM model in the state level data. Additionally, our proposed model outperforms a parallel study (AUG-NN) by 27.35% improvement of accuracy on average.

Knowledge Graph



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