High order modal Discontinuous Galerkin Implicit-Explicit Runge Kutta and Linear Multistep schemes for the Boltzmann model on general polygonal meshes

Walter Boscheri, Giacomo Dimarco

Deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation represent a real challenge due to the enormous computational effort which is required to produce such simulations and often stochastic methods such as Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) are used instead due to their lower computational cost. In this work, we show that combining different technologies for the discretization of the velocity space and of the physical space coupled with suitable time integration techniques, it is possible to compute very precise deterministic approximate solutions of the Boltzmann model in different regimes, from extremely rarefied to dense fluids, with CFL conditions only driven by the hyperbolic transport term. To that aim, we develop modal Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Implicit-Explicit Runge Kutta schemes (DG-IMEX-RK) and Implicit-Explicit Linear Multistep Methods based on Backward-Finite-Differences (DG-IMEX-BDF) for solving the Boltzmann model on multidimensional unstructured meshes. The solution of the Boltzmann collision operator is obtained through fast spectral methods, while the transport term in the governing equations is discretized relying on an explicit shock-capturing DG method on polygonal tessellations in the physical space. A novel class of WENO-type limiters, based on a shifting of the moments of inertia for each zone of the mesh, is used to control spurious oscillations of the DG solution across discontinuities. The order of convergence is numerically measured for different regimes and found to agree with the theoretical findings. The new methods are validated considering two-dimensional benchmark test cases typically used in the fluid dynamics community. A prototype engineering problem consisting of a supersonic flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil with space-time-dependent boundary conditions is also presented for which the pressure coefficients are measured.

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