3D Face Morphing Attacks: Generation, Vulnerability and Detection

Jag Mohan Singh, Raghavendra Ramachandra

Face Recognition systems (FRS) have been found vulnerable to morphing attacks, where the morphed face image is generated by blending the face images from contributory data subjects. This work presents a novel direction towards generating face morphing attacks in 3D. To this extent, we have introduced a novel approach based on blending the 3D face point clouds corresponding to the contributory data subjects. The proposed method will generate the 3D face morphing by projecting the input 3D face point clouds to depth-maps \& 2D color images followed by the image blending and wrapping operations performed independently on the color images and depth maps. We then back-project the 2D morphing color-map and the depth-map to the point cloud using the canonical (fixed) view. Given that the generated 3D face morphing models will result in the holes due to a single canonical view, we have proposed a new algorithm for hole filling that will result in a high-quality 3D face morphing model. Extensive experiments are carried out on the newly generated 3D face dataset comprised of 675 3D scans corresponding to 41 unique data subjects. Experiments are performed to benchmark the vulnerability of automatic 2D and 3D FRS and human observer analysis. We also present the quantitative assessment of the quality of the generated 3D face morphing models using eight different quality metrics. Finally, we have proposed three different 3D face Morphing Attack Detection (3D-MAD) algorithms to benchmark the performance of the 3D MAD algorithms.

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