Online Voltage Control for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Using Projected Newton Method

Rui Cheng, Zhaoyu Wang, Yifei Guo, Qianzhi Zhang

This paper proposes an online voltage control strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs), based on the projected Newton method (PNM), for unbalanced distribution networks. The optimal Volt/VAr control (VVC) problem is formulated as an optimization program, with the goal of maintaining the voltage profile across the network by coordinating the VAr outputs of DERs. To overcome the slow convergence rate of conventional gradient-based methods, a PNM-based solution algorithm is developed to solve this VVC problem. It utilizes a non-diagonal symmetric positive definite matrix, developed from the Hessian matrix of the objective, to scale the gradient, and thus a fast convergence performance can be expected in this Newton-like algorithm. Moreover, taking advantage of the instantaneous feedback of voltage measurements, the online implementation of the PNM-based VVC is further designed to deal with fast system variations. In this online PNM-based VVC scheme, each bus agent communicates the instantaneous voltage measurements to the central agent, and the central agent communicates the VAr output commands of DERs back to each bus agent. The fast convergence performance of PNM results in a stronger capability to track the system variations in real time. Finally, numerical case studies are performed to validate the effectiveness, superiority, and scalability of the proposed method.

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