Machine-learning-aided Massive Hybrid Analog and Digital MIMO DOA Estimation for Future Wireless Networks

Feng Shu, Xichao Zhan, Wenlong Cai, Mengxing Huang, Qijuan Jie, Yifang Li, Baihua Shi, Jiangzhou Wang

Due to a high spatial angle resolution and low circuit cost of massive hybrid analog and digital (HAD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), it is viewed as a key technology for future wireless networks. Combining a massive HAD-MIMO with direction of arrinal (DOA) will provide a high-precision even ultra-high-precision DOA measurement performance approaching the fully-digital (FD) MIMO. However, phase ambiguity is a challenge issue for a massive HAD-MIMO DOA estimation. In this paper, we review three aspects: detection, estimation, and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) with low-resolution ADCs at receiver. First, a multi-layer-neural-network (MLNN) detector is proposed to infer the existence of passive emitters. Then, a two-layer HAD (TLHAD) MIMO structure is proposed to eliminate phase ambiguity using only one-snapshot. Simulation results show that the proposed MLNN detector is much better than both the existing generalized likelihood ratio test (GRLT) and the ratio of maximum eigen-value (Max-EV) to minimum eigen-value (R-MaxEV-MinEV) in terms of detection probability. Additionally, the proposed TLHAD structure can achieve the corresponding CRLB using single snapshot.

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