The Recurrent Reinforcement Learning Crypto Agent

Gabriel Borrageiro, Nick Firoozye, Paolo Barucca

We demonstrate an application of online transfer learning as a digital assets trading agent. This agent makes use of a powerful feature space representation in the form of an echo state network, the output of which is made available to a direct, recurrent reinforcement learning agent. The agent learns to trade the XBTUSD (Bitcoin versus US dollars) perpetual swap derivatives contract on BitMEX. It learns to trade intraday on five minutely sampled data, avoids excessive over-trading, captures a funding profit and is also able to predict the direction of the market. Overall, our crypto agent realises a total return of 350%, net of transaction costs, over roughly five years, 71% of which is down to funding profit. The annualised information ratio that it achieves is 1.46.

Knowledge Graph



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