Passivity-based design and analysis of phase-locked loops

Daniele Zonetti, Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Eduardo Prieto-Araujo, Marc Cheah-Mane

We consider a grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and address the problem of estimating the grid angle and frequency, information that is essential for an appropriate operation of the converter. We design phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithms with guaranteed stability properties, under the assumption that the grid is characterized by relatively high short-circuit-ratio (SCR) and inertia. In particular we derive, using passivity arguments, generalization of the conventional synchronous reference frame (SRF) and arctangent (ATAN) PLL, which are the standard solutions in power applications. The analysis is further extended to the case of connection of the VSC to a low-inertia grid, ensuring robustness of the algorithms in case of frequency variations. The results are validated on a benchmark including the grid, the VSC and related controllers.

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