Falsification of Cyber-Physical Systems using Bayesian Optimization

Zahra Ramezani, Kenan Šehic, Luigi Nardi, Knut Åkesson

Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are usually complex and safety-critical; hence, it is difficult and important to guarantee that the system's requirements, i.e., specifications, are fulfilled. Simulation-based falsification of CPSs is a practical testing method that can be used to raise confidence in the correctness of the system by only requiring that the system under test can be simulated. As each simulation is typically computationally intensive, an important step is to reduce the number of simulations needed to falsify a specification. We study Bayesian optimization (BO), a sample-efficient method that learns a surrogate model that describes the relationship between the parametrization of possible input signals and the evaluation of the specification. In this paper, we improve the falsification using BO by; first adopting two prominent BO methods, one fits local surrogate models, and the other exploits the user's prior knowledge. Secondly, the formulation of acquisition functions for falsification is addressed in this paper. Benchmark evaluation shows significant improvements in using local surrogate models of BO for falsifying benchmark examples that were previously hard to falsify. Using prior knowledge in the falsification process is shown to be particularly important when the simulation budget is limited. For some of the benchmark problems, the choice of acquisition function clearly affects the number of simulations needed for successful falsification.

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