Generative Visual Prompt: Unifying Distributional Control of Pre-Trained Generative Models

Chen Henry Wu, Saman Motamed, Shaunak Srivastava, Fernando de la Torre

Generative models (e.g., GANs and diffusion models) learn the underlying data distribution in an unsupervised manner. However, many applications of interest require sampling from a specific region of the generative model's output space or evenly over a range of characteristics. To allow efficient sampling in these scenarios, we propose Generative Visual Prompt (PromptGen), a framework for distributional control over pre-trained generative models by incorporating knowledge of arbitrary off-the-shelf models. PromptGen defines control as an energy-based model (EBM) and samples images in a feed-forward manner by approximating the EBM with invertible neural networks, avoiding optimization at inference. We demonstrate how PromptGen can control several generative models (e.g., StyleGAN2, StyleNeRF, diffusion autoencoder, and NVAE) using various off-the-shelf models: (1) with the CLIP model, PromptGen can sample images guided by text, (2) with image classifiers, PromptGen can de-bias generative models across a set of attributes, and (3) with inverse graphics models, PromptGen can sample images of the same identity in different poses. (4) Finally, PromptGen reveals that the CLIP model shows "reporting bias" when used as control, and PromptGen can further de-bias this controlled distribution in an iterative manner. Our code is available at

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