An Overview of Cyber Security and Privacy on the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Roberto Metere, Zoya Pourmirza, Sara Walker, Myriam Neaimeh

Electric vehicles (EVs) are key to alleviate our dependency on fossil fuels. The future smart grid is expected to be populated by millions of EVs equipped with high-demand batteries. To avoid an overload of the (current) electricity grid, expensive upgrades are required. Some of the upgrades can be averted if users of EVs participate to energy balancing mechanisms, for example through bidirectional EV charging. As the proliferation of consumer Internet-connected devices increases, including EV smart charging stations, their security against cyber-attacks and the protection of private data become a growing concern. We need to properly adapt and develop our current technology that must tackle the security challenges in the EV charging infrastructure, which go beyond the traditional technical applications in the domain of energy and transport networks. Security must balance with other desirable qualities such as interoperability, crypto-agility and energy efficiency. Evidence suggests a gap in the current awareness of cyber security in EV charging infrastructures. This paper fills this gap by providing the most comprehensive to date overview of privacy and security challenges To do so, we review communication protocols used in its ecosystem and provide a suggestion of security tools that might be used for future research.

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