Deep Adaptation of Adult-Child Facial Expressions by Fusing Landmark Features

Megan A. Witherow, Manar D. Samad, Norou Diawara, Haim Y. Bar, Khan M. Iftekharuddin

Imaging of facial affects may be used to measure psychophysiological attributes of children through their adulthood, especially for monitoring lifelong conditions like Autism Spectrum Disorder. Deep convolutional neural networks have shown promising results in classifying facial expressions of adults. However, classifier models trained with adult benchmark data are unsuitable for learning child expressions due to discrepancies in psychophysical development. Similarly, models trained with child data perform poorly in adult expression classification. We propose domain adaptation to concurrently align distributions of adult and child expressions in a shared latent space to ensure robust classification of either domain. Furthermore, age variations in facial images are studied in age-invariant face recognition yet remain unleveraged in adult-child expression classification. We take inspiration from multiple fields and propose deep adaptive FACial Expressions fusing BEtaMix SElected Landmark Features (FACE-BE-SELF) for adult-child facial expression classification. For the first time in the literature, a mixture of Beta distributions is used to decompose and select facial features based on correlations with expression, domain, and identity factors. We evaluate FACE-BE-SELF on two pairs of adult-child data sets. Our proposed FACE-BE-SELF approach outperforms adult-child transfer learning and other baseline domain adaptation methods in aligning latent representations of adult and child expressions.

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