Scaling and Load-Balancing Equi-Joins

Ahmed Metwally

The task of joining two tables is fundamental for querying databases. In this paper, we focus on the equi-join problem, where a pair of records from the two joined tables are part of the join results if equality holds between their values in the join column(s). While this is a tractable problem when the number of records in the joined tables is relatively small, it becomes very challenging as the table sizes increase, especially if hot keys (join column values with a large number of records) exist in both joined tables. This paper, an extended version of [metwally-SIGMOD-2022], proposes Adaptive-Multistage-Join (AM-Join) for scalable and fast equi-joins in distributed shared-nothing architectures. AM-Join utilizes (a) Tree-Join, a proposed novel algorithm that scales well when the joined tables share hot keys, and (b) Broadcast-Join, the known fastest when joining keys that are hot in only one table. Unlike the state-of-the-art algorithms, AM-Join (a) holistically solves the join-skew problem by achieving load balancing throughout the join execution, and (b) supports all outer-join variants without record deduplication or custom table partitioning. For the fastest AM-Join outer-join performance, we propose the Index-Broadcast-Join (IB-Join) family of algorithms for Small-Large joins, where one table fits in memory and the other can be up to orders of magnitude larger. The outer-join variants of IB-Join improves on the state-of-the-art Small-Large outer-join algorithms. The proposed algorithms can be adopted in any shared-nothing architecture. We implemented a MapReduce version using Spark. Our evaluation shows the proposed algorithms execute significantly faster and scale to more skewed and orders-of-magnitude bigger tables when compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

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