GedankenNet: Self-supervised learning of hologram reconstruction using physics consistency

Luzhe Huang, Hanlong Chen, Tairan Liu, Aydogan Ozcan

The past decade has witnessed transformative applications of deep learning in various computational imaging, sensing and microscopy tasks. Due to the supervised learning schemes employed, most of these methods depend on large-scale, diverse, and labeled training data. The acquisition and preparation of such training image datasets are often laborious and costly, also leading to biased estimation and limited generalization to new types of samples. Here, we report a self-supervised learning model, termed GedankenNet, that eliminates the need for labeled or experimental training data, and demonstrate its effectiveness and superior generalization on hologram reconstruction tasks. Without prior knowledge about the sample types to be imaged, the self-supervised learning model was trained using a physics-consistency loss and artificial random images that are synthetically generated without any experiments or resemblance to real-world samples. After its self-supervised training, GedankenNet successfully generalized to experimental holograms of various unseen biological samples, reconstructing the phase and amplitude images of different types of objects using experimentally acquired test holograms. Without access to experimental data or the knowledge of real samples of interest or their spatial features, GedankenNet's self-supervised learning achieved complex-valued image reconstructions that are consistent with the Maxwell's equations, meaning that its output inference and object solutions accurately represent the wave propagation in free-space. This self-supervised learning of image reconstruction tasks opens up new opportunities for various inverse problems in holography, microscopy and computational imaging fields.

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