S2TD: a Separation Logic Verifier that Supports Reasoning of the Absence and Presence of Bugs

Quang Loc Le, Jun Sun, Long H. Pham, Shengchao Qin

Heap-manipulating programs are known to be challenging to reason about. We present a novel verifier for heap-manipulating programs called S2TD, which encodes programs systematically in the form of Constrained Horn Clauses (CHC) using a novel extension of separation logic (SL) with recursive predicates and dangling predicates. S2TD actively explores cyclic proofs to address the path explosion problem. S2TD differentiates itself from existing CHC-based verifiers by focusing on heap-manipulating programs and employing cyclic proof to efficiently verify or falsify them with counterexamples. Compared with existing SL-based verifiers, S2TD precisely specifies the heaps of de-allocated pointers to avoid false positives in reasoning about the presence of bugs. S2TD has been evaluated using a comprehensive set of benchmark programs from the SV-COMP repository. The results show that S2TD is more effective than state-of-art program verifiers and is more efficient than most of them.

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