Nonlinear approximation spaces for inverse problems

Albert Cohen, Matthieu Dolbeault, Olga Mula, Agustin Somacal

This paper is concerned with the ubiquitous inverse problem of recovering an unknown function u from finitely many measurements possibly affected by noise. In recent years, inversion methods based on linear approximation spaces were introduced in [MPPY15, BCDDPW17] with certified recovery bounds. It is however known that linear spaces become ineffective for approximating simple and relevant families of functions, such as piecewise smooth functions that typically occur in hyperbolic PDEs (shocks) or images (edges). For such families, nonlinear spaces [Devore98] are known to significantly improve the approximation performance. The first contribution of this paper is to provide with certified recovery bounds for inversion procedures based on nonlinear approximation spaces. The second contribution is the application of this framework to the recovery of general bidimensional shapes from cell-average data. We also discuss how the application of our results to n-term approximation relates to classical results in compressed sensing.

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