How Many Grid-Forming Converters do We Need? A Perspective From Power Grid Strength

Huanhai Xin, Yuxuan Wang, Xinyu Liu, Bo Tang, Guangzheng Yu, Linbin Huang

Grid-forming (GFM) control has been considered as a promising solution to accommodating large-scale power electronic converters into modern power grids due to its voltage source behaviors on the AC side. Unlike grid-following (GFL) converters, GFM converters do not rely on phase-locked loops (PLLs) for grid synchronization and can adapt to weak power grids. However, it is still not clear how to configure GFM converters in the grid and how many GFM converters we will need. This letter sheds some light on these questions by investigating how the capacity ratio between GFM and GFL converters affects the small signal stability of the system and how to choose this ratio to maintain a desired stability margin. Our analysis is based on characterizing the influences of GFM converters on the stability margin from the perspective of power grid strength. We validate our analysis using high-fidelity simulations.

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