Generalized Quantum Arthur-Merlin Games

Hirotada Kobayashi, François Le Gall, Harumichi Nishimura

This paper investigates the role of interaction and coins in public-coin quantum interactive proof systems (also called quantum Arthur-Merlin games). While prior works focused on classical public coins even in the quantum setting, the present work introduces a generalized version of quantum Arthur-Merlin games where the public coins can be quantum as well: the verifier can send not only random bits, but also halves of EPR pairs. First, it is proved that the class of two-turn quantum Arthur-Merlin games with quantum public coins, denoted qq-QAM in this paper, does not change by adding a constant number of turns of classical interactions prior to the communications of the qq-QAM proof systems. This can be viewed as a quantum analogue of the celebrated collapse theorem for AM due to Babai. To prove this collapse theorem, this paper provides a natural complete problem for qq-QAM: deciding whether the output of a given quantum circuit is close to a totally mixed state. This complete problem is on the very line of the previous studies investigating the hardness of checking the properties related to quantum circuits, and is of independent interest. It is further proved that the class qq-QAM_1 of two-turn quantum-public-coin quantum Arthur-Merlin proof systems with perfect completeness gives new bounds for standard well-studied classes of two-turn interactive proof systems. Finally, the collapse theorem above is extended to comprehensively classify the role of interaction and public coins in quantum Arthur-Merlin games: it is proved that, for any constant m>1, the class of problems having an m-turn quantum Arthur-Merlin proof system is either equal to PSPACE or equal to the class of problems having a two-turn quantum Arthur-Merlin game of a specific type, which provides a complete set of quantum analogues of Babai's collapse theorem.

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