A New Frequency Control Reserve Framework based on Energy-Constrained Units

Theodor Borsche, Andreas Ulbig, Göran Andersson

Frequency control reserves are an essential ancillary service in any electric power system, guaranteeing that generation and demand of active power are balanced at all times. Traditionally, conventional power plants are used for frequency reserves. There are economical and technical benefits of instead using energy constrained units such as storage systems and demand response, but so far they have not been widely adopted as their energy constraints prevent them from following traditional regulation signals, which sometimes are biased over long time-spans. This paper proposes a frequency control framework that splits the control signals according to the frequency spectrum. This guarantees that all control signals are zero-mean over well-defined time-periods, which is a crucial requirement for the usage of energy-constraint units such as batteries. A case-study presents a possible implementation, and shows how different technologies with widely varying characteristics can all participate in frequency control reserve provision, while guaranteeing that their respective energy constraints are always fulfilled.

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