An Algebra of Causal Chains

Pedro Cabalar, Jorge Fandinno

In this work we propose a multi-valued extension of logic programs under the stable models semantics where each true atom in a model is associated with a set of justifications, in a similar spirit than a set of proof trees. The main contribution of this paper is that we capture justifications into an algebra of truth values with three internal operations: an addition '+' representing alternative justifications for a formula, a commutative product '*' representing joint interaction of causes and a non-commutative product '.' acting as a concatenation or proof constructor. Using this multi-valued semantics, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between the syntactic proof tree of a standard (non-causal) logic program and the interpretation of each true atom in a model. Furthermore, thanks to this algebraic characterization we can detect semantic properties like redundancy and relevance of the obtained justifications. We also identify a lattice-based characterization of this algebra, defining a direct consequences operator, proving its continuity and that its least fix point can be computed after a finite number of iterations. Finally, we define the concept of causal stable model by introducing an analogous transformation to Gelfond and Lifschitz's program reduct.

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