Constraint Satisfaction with Counting Quantifiers 2

Barnaby Martin, Juraj Stacho

We study constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in the presence of counting quantifiers $\exists^{\geq j}$, asserting the existence of $j$ distinct witnesses for the variable in question. As a continuation of our previous (CSR 2012) paper, we focus on the complexity of undirected graph templates. As our main contribution, we settle the two principal open questions proposed in (CSR 2012). Firstly, we complete the classification of clique templates by proving a full trichotomy for all possible combinations of counting quantifiers and clique sizes, placing each case either in P, NP-complete or Pspace-complete. This involves resolution of the cases in which we have the single quantifier $\exists^{\geq j}$ on the clique $K_{2j}$. Secondly, we confirm a conjecture from (CSR 2012), which proposes a full dichotomy for $\exists$ and $\exists^{\geq 2}$ on all finite undirected graphs. The main thrust of this second result is the solution of the complexity for the infinite path which we prove is a polynomial-time solvable problem. By adapting the algorithm for the infinite path we are then able to solve the problem for finite paths, and then trees and forests. Thus as a corollary to this work, combining with the other cases from (CSR 2012), we obtain a full dichotomy for $\exists$ and $\exists^{\geq 2}$ quantifiers on finite graphs, each such problem being either in P or NP-hard. Finally, we persevere with the work of (CSR 2012) in exploring cases in which there is dichotomy between P and Pspace-complete, in contrast with situations in which the intermediate NP-completeness may appear.

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