#### Binary Jumbled Pattern Matching via All-Pairs Shortest Paths

##### Danny Hermelin, Gad M. Landau, Yuri Rabinovich, Oren Weimann

In binary jumbled pattern matching we wish to preprocess a binary string $S$ in order to answer queries $(i,j)$ which ask for a substring of $S$ that is of size $i$ and has exactly $j$ 1-bits. The problem naturally generalizes to node-labeled trees and graphs by replacing "substring" with "connected subgraph". In this paper, we give an ${n^2}/{2^{\Omega(\log n/\log \log n)^{1/2}}}$ time solution for both strings and trees. This odd-looking time complexity improves the state of the art $O(n^2/\log^2 n)$ solutions by more than any poly-logarithmic factor. It originates from the recent seminal algorithm of Williams for min-plus matrix multiplication. We obtain the result by giving a black box reduction from trees to strings. This is then combined with a reduction from strings to min-plus matrix multiplications.

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