Iterative Dynamic Water-filling for Fading Multiple-Access Channels with Energy Harvesting

Zhe Wang, Vaneet Aggarwal, Xiaodong Wang

In this paper, we develop optimal energy scheduling algorithms for $N$-user fading multiple-access channels with energy harvesting to maximize the channel sum-rate, assuming that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting states for $K$ time slots is known {\em a priori}, and the battery capacity and the maximum energy consumption in each time slot are bounded. The problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem with ${\cal O}(NK)$ constraints making it hard to solve using a general convex solver since the computational complexity of a generic convex solver is exponential in the number of constraints. This paper gives an efficient energy scheduling algorithm, called the iterative dynamic water-filling algorithm, that has a computational complexity of ${\cal O}(NK^2)$ per iteration. For the single-user case, a dynamic water-filling method is shown to be optimal. Unlike the traditional water-filling algorithm, in dynamic water-filling, the water level is not constant but changes when the battery overflows or depletes. An iterative version of the dynamic water-filling algorithm is shown to be optimal for the case of multiple users. Even though in principle the optimality is achieved under large number of iterations, in practice convergence is reached in only a few iterations. Moreover, a single iteration of the dynamic water-filling algorithm achieves a sum-rate that is within $(N-1)K/2$ nats of the optimal sum-rate.

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