PORTRAIT: a hybrid aPproach tO cReate extractive ground-TRuth summAry for dIsaster evenT

Piyush Kumar Garg, Roshni Chakraborty, Sourav Kumar Dandapat

Disaster summarization approaches provide an overview of the important information posted during disaster events on social media platforms, such as, Twitter. However, the type of information posted significantly varies across disasters depending on several factors like the location, type, severity, etc. Verification of the effectiveness of disaster summarization approaches still suffer due to the lack of availability of good spectrum of datasets along with the ground-truth summary. Existing approaches for ground-truth summary generation (ground-truth for extractive summarization) relies on the wisdom and intuition of the annotators. Annotators are provided with a complete set of input tweets from which a subset of tweets is selected by the annotators for the summary. This process requires immense human effort and significant time. Additionally, this intuition-based selection of the tweets might lead to a high variance in summaries generated across annotators. Therefore, to handle these challenges, we propose a hybrid (semi-automated) approach (PORTRAIT) where we partly automate the ground-truth summary generation procedure. This approach reduces the effort and time of the annotators while ensuring the quality of the created ground-truth summary. We validate the effectiveness of PORTRAIT on 5 disaster events through quantitative and qualitative comparisons of ground-truth summaries generated by existing intuitive approaches, a semi-automated approach, and PORTRAIT. We prepare and release the ground-truth summaries for 5 disaster events which consist of both natural and man-made disaster events belonging to 4 different countries. Finally, we provide a study about the performance of various state-of-the-art summarization approaches on the ground-truth summaries generated by PORTRAIT using ROUGE-N F1-scores.

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