Nearly Optimal Algorithms for Testing and Learning Quantum Junta Channels

Zongbo Bao, Penghui Yao

We consider the problems of testing and learning quantum $k$-junta channels, which are $n$-qubit to $n$-qubit quantum channels acting non-trivially on at most $k$ out of $n$ qubits and leaving the rest of qubits unchanged. We show the following. 1. An $\widetilde{O}\left(\sqrt{k}\right)$-query algorithm to distinguish whether the given channel is $k$-junta channel or is far from any $k$-junta channels, and a lower bound $\Omega\left(\sqrt{k}\right)$ on the number of queries; 2. An $\widetilde{O}\left(4^k\right)$-query algorithm to learn a $k$-junta channel, and a lower bound $\Omega\left(4^k/k\right)$ on the number of queries. This answers an open problem raised by Chen et al. (2023). In order to settle these problems, we develop a Fourier analysis framework over the space of superoperators and prove several fundamental properties, which extends the Fourier analysis over the space of operators introduced in Montanaro and Osborne (2010).

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