Inspecting and Editing Knowledge Representations in Language Models

Evan Hernandez, Belinda Z. Li, Jacob Andreas

Neural language models (LMs) represent facts about the world described by text. Sometimes these facts derive from training data (in most LMs, a representation of the word "banana" encodes the fact that bananas are fruits). Sometimes facts derive from input text itself (a representation of the sentence "I poured out the bottle" encodes the fact that the bottle became empty). We describe REMEDI, a method for learning to map statements in natural language to fact encodings in an LM's internal representation system. REMEDI encodings can be used as knowledge editors: when added to LM hidden representations, they modify downstream generation to be consistent with new facts. REMEDI encodings may also be used as probes: when compared to LM representations, they reveal which properties LMs already attribute to mentioned entities, in some cases making it possible to predict when LMs will generate outputs that conflict with background knowledge or input text. REMEDI thus links work on probing, prompting, and LM editing, and offers steps toward general tools for fine-grained inspection and control of knowledge in LMs.

Knowledge Graph



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