Generative Model Watermarking Suppressing High-Frequency Artifacts

Li Zhang, Yong Liu, Xinpeng Zhang, Hanzhou Wu

Protecting deep neural networks (DNNs) against intellectual property (IP) infringement has attracted an increasing attention in recent years. Recent advances focus on IP protection of generative models, which embed the watermark information into the image generated by the model to be protected. Although the generated marked image has good visual quality, it introduces noticeable artifacts to the marked image in high-frequency area, which severely impairs the imperceptibility of the watermark and thereby reduces the security of the watermarking system. To deal with this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel framework for generative model watermarking that can suppress those high-frequency artifacts. The main idea of the proposed framework is to design a new watermark embedding network that can suppress high-frequency artifacts by applying anti-aliasing. To realize anti-aliasing, we use low-pass filtering for the internal sampling layers of the new watermark embedding network. Meanwhile, joint loss optimization and adversarial training are applied to enhance the effectiveness and robustness. Experimental results indicate that the marked model not only maintains the performance very well on the original task, but also demonstrates better imperceptibility and robustness on the watermarking task. This work reveals the importance of suppressing high-frequency artifacts for enhancing imperceptibility and security of generative model watermarking.

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